A Cultural History of Archaeological Education

Carol J. Ellick[1]

Copyright 2016 © The Society for American Archaeology. Reprinted with permission. Originally published as Carol J. Ellick. 2016. A Cultural History of Archaeological Education. Advances in Archaeological Practice 4(4):425–440.


To know where we are going, we need to know where we have been, so it seems only fitting that to produce a special issue on designing and assessing public education programs in archaeology, we need to look back to the establishment of public outreach and archaeological education in the United States and, specifically, within the Society for American Archaeology. Archaeological education, as a subfield of archaeology, can trace its roots to individual efforts at sharing archaeology with the public, but especially to the first Save the Past for the Future Conference in Taos, New Mexico. It was here that the idea took root that, to stem vandalism and looting, we need to educate people about archaeology. This meeting was the springboard for federal initiatives like Project Archaeology and Passport in Time, and it was also the birthplace for the SAA Public Education Committee. For more than 25 years, archaeologists have been creating public outreach programs, students have graduated college thinking of public outreach as a career path, and TV shows have sensationalized our profession, but what do we really know about what we’ve done, whether we’ve made a difference, and how it can propel ourselves and future generations of archaeological educators forward?

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The evolution of archaeological education in the United States started over thirty years ago and quickly infiltrated how we think about and conduct archaeology. Rooted in legislation and a need to stop chronic looting and vandalism, archaeological education has, over time, found its place within the profession.

The late 1960s and 1970s saw the enactment of environmental protection legislation that essentially created the field of cultural resource management (CRM), established the State Historic Preservation Offices, and generally organized a process for documenting, excavating, and protecting cultural resources. Legislation such as the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) of 1966, National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, and Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979 provided the legal turning point for public outreach and education. The NHPA (1966), for example, states that historic preservation “is in the public interest so that its vital legacy of cultural, educational, aesthetic, inspirational, economic, and energy benefits will be maintained and enriched for future generations of Americans.” These laws, and works like William Lipe’s (1977) Conservation Model for American Archaeology, which emphasizes the importance of public education based on the “social value” of archaeological resources, prompted new thinking and a values-based approach to dealing with the issues (Lipe 1977:3–18). But it was actions in the 1980s that truly kick-started the archaeological education movement.

Archaeological education began with individuals who were intent on sharing the process of archaeology with the general public, as well as the cultural heritage being uncovered through that process. They also believed that education could reduce looting and vandalism on archaeological sites. Archaeologists within the private sector, academia, and governmental agencies started talking about the issues and people formed committees within state-based professional archaeological organizations. Committees, in turn, began conversations with teachers, creating materials for classrooms and training workshops. These efforts quickly prompted archaeological education and public outreach to become a national focus of the Society for American Archaeology (SAA) and other professional organizations.

In many ways, however, archaeological education has come to a standstill. This is not to say that those who made a career of public outreach have gone away. Quite the contrary, their work resulted in the inclusion of public outreach programs on CRM projects, influenced professional organizations, impacted policy within agencies at the state and national level, and infected a generation of anthropology graduates with the desire to specialize in this area. But those who started the movement and participated in it since its inception are seeing a disturbing trend. Those who are following in their footsteps do not have a strong point of reference; emerging scholars are not finding resources to help them move this profession forward.

Many archaeological education resources are obscure and scattered; few are published, and even fewer are peer-reviewed. The public education pages on our professional organizations’ websites contain information, but it can be diffuse. Often information only resides in grey literature and primary sources such as meeting notes. Significantly absent are the programmatic assessments, the subject of this current issue of Advances in Archaeological Practice (AAP). Before looking at the effectiveness of specific programs, however, as anthropologists we understand the importance of knowing a culture’s background. As archaeologists, we appreciate the importance of material remains to help us decipher that background. As academically trained individuals, we realize that we need to build on what has been done before so that new information, ideas, and materials can be built on a firmer foundation. The objective of the present piece, then, is to provide a deeper, historical context for public outreach and archaeological education in the United States in order to assess where we stand now and where we need to go in the future. The history of archaeological education lies mostly in the memories of those who started the revolution. In reconstructing this history, the “elders” of public outreach and education were consulted, meeting notes were dusted off, and primary sources were reviewed. The story lies here, in the ability to reflect back and see toward the future.

Moments of Significance: The Origins of Archaeological Education

It is difficult to identify the exact moment when archaeological education was born in the United States, but the first efforts date to the early 1950s with the founding of Archaeological Research Incorporated (ARI) in Kampsville, Illinois. Its original mission was “to promote and engage in the science of archaeology in the Eastern United States” (Center for American Archaeology 2014). Over the next three decades, the focus on research, education, involvement, and stewardship increased until 1981, when the organization, with the revised mission of “education, research, and public service in archaeology” became incorporated as the Center for American Archeology (Center for American Archeology 2014).

In 1967, Edward Berger, a teacher in Denver, wrote a proposal to the Denver School District to develop a program for troubled students. The resulting field trip with fourteen students, and its discovery, recording, and reporting of an Ancestral Puebloan burial led to the development of an educational experiment, which became the Crow Canyon Archaeological Center in Cortez, Colorado (Berger 1993). Crow Canyon was incorporated as a nonprofit in 1972 and in 1974 Berger purchased 80 acres on which to develop the year-round campus. Crow Canyon merged with the Center for American Archeology in 1983 (Berger 1993).

Individuals within federal institutions also produced public materials. In 1979 the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History Anthropology Outreach Office began its national outreach program with the publication AnthroNotes, which continued through 2012.

The alarming rate of looting and vandalizing of archaeological sites formed the basis for the archaeological education revolution that began in the 1980s. Governmental agency archaeologists, law enforcement personnel, and archaeologists working within the private sector met to identify solutions to the problem. The story is not linear so retelling it is not a simple chronology. This revoltion and the people who initiated it crossed paths, state lines, and at times international boundaries. Groups were formed, issues were examined, and actions were taken at both national and state levels, starting local and scaling upward. This narrative will follow that trajectory.

Washington (State)

Education efforts began on the local level in 1979, when Nan Munsell (McNutt), a science educator at the Pacific Science Center, wrote Project Archaeology: Saving Traditions (PAST), one of the first archaeological education-based curricula for classrooms. The materials, targeting grades 6–8, were interdisciplinary, with an emphasis on developing higher-level thinking skills through inquiry. In 1988, Sopris West published PAST as an archaeology curriculum with a teacher’s guide, student field notebooks, a game board, and a filmstrip/tape presentation (McNutt 1988). PAST remains unique in that the State of Washington validated it.

In 1989, Nan McNutt was invited to organize one of the first teacher workshops held in conjunction with a professional archaeological meeting at the 1990 Society for Historical Archaeology (SHA) meeting in Tucson, Arizona. K. C. Smith, an educator at the Museum of Florida History, organized the session. This workshop was a pivotal moment in the history of archaeological education as it led to an article in Archaeology (K.C. Smith 1991a). Several participants would become founding members of the SAA Public Education Committee.


Arizona hosted some of the earliest efforts to reduce looting and vandalism through public outreach. Shereen Lerner, as Deputy State Historic Preservation Officer, and as State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO) from 1985–1992, began conversations focused on “changing the way we do business in archaeology” with Tom Lincoln and Jon Czaplicki at the Bureau of Reclamation, Phoenix Area Office. They discussed how to “think about archaeology thematically, not site-by-site, but by asking specific research questions relating to topics like trade and exchange, core-periphery interactions, or water use and management, and in each case to include a public education component.” According to Lerner, similar conversations took place at the National Council of SHPOs and with individuals within other federal and state agencies, and within the SAA (Lerner, personal communication, 2016).

During the mid-1980s, the Arizona Archaeological Council (AAC) established the Archaeology for the Schools Committee with the “goal of enhancing appreciation of archaeological resources among the state’s younger citizens” and programs that “spread the message about the values of archeology into elementary schools” (Rogge and Bell 1989). The first publication of these efforts appeared in the NPS Archaeological Assistance Program Technical Brief No. 2, “Arizona Archaeology Week: Promoting the Past to the Public” (Hoffman and Lerner 1988). An article in Technical Brief No. 4 highlighted the early efforts of the AAC and included Schools Committee goals, learning outcomes, a lesson plan, a resource list, and a strategy for getting teachers to utilize archeology (Rogge and Bell 1989).

At the same time that Arizona was developing programs, outreach efforts were initiated in other states, including Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Missouri, South Dakota, Texas, Vermont, and Virginia, as well as in Canada (Rogge and Bell 1989) (Table 1.)

Table 1. A Selection of State-Level Programs from 1978–1989.*

DateStateProgram or Materials
1978South DakotaAncient Peoples and Places of South Dakota: Young People’s Guide to South Dakota Archaeology
1979WashingtonProject Archaeology Saving Traditions
1980KentuckyEnvironmental Approaches to Prehistory/Archaeology
1983ArizonaFirst State-wide Archaeology Week event
1983–86KentuckyKentucky Prehistory Curriculum Project (A set of three products)
1983–84TexasLiving with the Texas Past Series, No. 1–3
1984ColoradoAnasazi Education Outreach
1984LouisianaClassroom Archaeology: An Archaeology Activity Guide for Teachers
1985ArizonaArchaeology Is More than a Dig
1987ArizonaArchaeology for Teachers Teaching Packet
1987ArizonaState Site Steward Program
1987UtahUtah Prehistory: Social Studies & Talent Training
1988ColoradoKeepers of the Earth
1988IowaIowa’s P.A.S.T: Ancestors of the Ioway
1988MaineThe Human Story: Bringing Prehistory to Life
1988MaineDiscovering Maine’s Prehistory through Archaeology: An Interdisciplinary Unit for Grades 5–8
1988MarylandThe First People of Maryland
1988MassachusettsNative American Sourcebook: A Teacher’s Resource on New England Native Peoples
1988New YorkArcheology Activity Workbook
1988UtahTeaching Kit in Archaeology
1989CaliforniaSouthwestern Rock Art: A Cultural Resource and Interdisciplinary Education Curriculum
1989D.C. RegionLocal Archeology Resource Guide
1989D.C. RegionHistoric, Archaeological & Cultural Resources Curriculum
1989IllinoisIllinois Archaeological Resource Materials with Annotated Bibliography for Teachers
1989New YorkThe Native People of the Northeast Woodlands
1989South CarolinaCan You Dig It? A Classroom Guide to South Carolina Archaeology
1989VermontA Rich and Ancient Heritage: Vermont’s Archeological Sites
Note:*Archeological Assistance Division 1990; Ellick 1998; Knoll 1990; Smith 1991b.

In the early 1990s, a Utah interagency Task Force on Cultural Resources with individuals from the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Forest Service, National Park Service (NPS), the state of Utah, tribes, and educational institutions built an archaeology education program that produced The Intriguing Past: Investigating Archaeology, a teacher’s guide for fourth through seventh grade (Smith et al. 1990). The Intriguing Past, disseminated through workshops, contained lesson plans on topics including archaeological concepts, cultural history, and preservation. In 1992, using the Utah effort and The Intriguing Past as its base, the BLM developed a national heritage education program, Project Archaeology (see more below).

Washington, D.C.

Meanwhile, efforts began on a national level in 1985 and 1986, when Jerry L. Rogers, National Park Service (NPS) Director for Cultural Resources, and the Department of the Interior Departmental Consulting Archeologist Bennie C. Keel instigated a series of meetings with federal agency preservation officers. The group, called the Public Awareness Working Group (PAWG), came together to discuss increasing public understanding and appreciation for archaeological resources (George Smith, personal communication 2016). The goal was to identify ways to improve implementation of the Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979. According to Francis McManamon (personal communication 2016), meetings held in the summers of 1985 and 1986 were organized as “initial steps in improving the coordination of federal agency archaeological activities.” People from a dozen or more federal agencies, including the BLM, the Fish and Wildlife Service, the Minerals Management Service, the Forest Service, the Bureau of Reclamation, the Army Corps of Engineers, and the NPS participated in these meetings. Documentation of the new agency coordination was published in 1988 as a special issue of the CRM Bulletin (Smith et al. 1988).

In 1990, the United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service Archeological Assistance Division produced the Listing of Education in Archeological Programs: The LEAP Clearinghouse 1987–1989 Summary Report edited by Patricia C. Knoll. The LEAP reports, published through 1991, summarized the database cataloging the first comprehensive listing of materials and information on “Federal, State, local, and private projects promoting positive public awareness of American archeology—prehistoric and historic, terrestrial and underwater” (Knoll 1990:iii).

Little did they know at the time, but the individuals attending the initial PAWG meetings were purveyors of change—formulating ideas behind the scenes that created national programs.

Nationally-Based Public Outreach and Education Programs

As mentioned above, archaeologists working within governmental agencies began developing outreach programs to decrease looting and vandalism on archaeological sites. Two federal programs that started in the late 1980s/early 1990s  and that continue today are Passport in Time (PIT), sponsored by the U. S. Forest Service (FS), and Project Archaeology, sponsored by the BLM.

Passport in Time. The FS and the Passport in Time Clearinghouse describe PIT as a volunteer archaeology and historic preservation program. PIT volunteers work with professional FS archaeologists and historians in national forests throughout the United States, on activities such as archaeological survey and excavation, rock art restoration, archival research, historic structure restoration, oral history gathering, and artifact analysis and curation (PIT 2016).

PIT began in 1988 as a single forest program in the Superior National Forest in Minnesota. The following year, the program expanded to two additional forests, received its current name, and issued the first “passports” to volunteers. It became an official national FS program in 1991.

PIT runs year-round, with most projects undertaken during the summer. According to statistics reported in January 2016, more than 125 National Forests in more than 38 states have hosted more than 2,800 PIT projects and, since its founding, more than 35,000 volunteers have contributed more than 1,602,384 hours! That’s more than 767 person years (and $27 million worth) of energy toward historic preservation (PIT 2016).

Project Archaeology. In the early 1990s, Utah’s The Intriguing Past: Investigating Archaeology (Smith et al. 1990) became part of a national heritage education program that the BLM based in its new Anasazi Heritage Center in Dolores, Colorado. Under this program, a professional staff called the “Imagination Team” transformed The Intriguing Past into a generalized version called Intrigue of the Past: A Teacher’s Activity Guide for Fourth through Seventh Grade (Smith et al 1993), and worked with individual states to develop cultural history supplements. In 1992, Arizona became the first state to dedicate funds for such a supplement. Intrigue of the Past: Discovering Archaeology in Arizona (Heath 1994) was produced and workshops were offered, under contract to the BLM, through the Arizona Archaeological Council’s Archaeology in the Schools Committee.

In 1995 the New Mexico Office of Cultural Affairs, State Historic Preservation Office was the first to fully fund a state-based Project Archaeology program outside of Utah. Subsequent grants maintained the program and provided funds for workshops, lesson plan development, and educator support. As of this writing, 37 states have active Project Archaeology programs and eight other states are in the process of developing programs (Project Archaeology 2015).

Project Archaeology celebrated its 25th anniversary in 2015. Additional information on the history and future of Project Archaeology can be found in the article by Moe in this AAP issue.

Taking it to the Profession

When Berger and his fourteen students stumbled across the infant burial that had been removed from context by pothunters, they didn’t leave it exposed, dissect it out of curiosity, or remove it. They photographed it, gently reburied it, and reported it to the BLM (Berger 1993). Berger used an anti-looting sign to teach appropriate behavior. But a law and a posted sign are not always deterrents. More aggressive measures were needed and those measures had to be initiated across the discipline.

Save the Past for the Future

The members of the PAWG appealed to the SAA and in 1988, the SAA initiated the Save the Past for the Future project to “help preserve America’s rich archaeological heritage by: (1) understanding why archaeological looting and vandalism occur; (2) determining ways to reduce looting and vandalism; (3) providing diverse opportunities for public education; and (4) devising strategies to improve protection of archaeological resources” (Judge and Bruen 1990). To this end, the SAA created a Steering Committee of archaeologists from federal agencies, national and state organizations, and private foundations. A special session titled “Our Vanishing Past: The Willful Destruction of a Nation’s Heritage” (Judge and Bruen 1990) formally kicked off Save the Past for the Future (Figure 1) at the 1989 SAA meeting in Atlanta, Georgia. The second event was a Working Conference on Looting and Vandalism at Fort Burgwin Research Center, Taos, New Mexico, that same year.

Figure 1. Save the Past for the Future button (photograph by Carol J. Ellick).

According to Edward (Ed) Friedman (2000:13) “The goal of the conference was to develop a strategy to combat the rampant vandalism that was destroying the nation’s archaeological resources.” Over 70 experts from governmental and law enforcement agencies and the private sector, all concerned about the destruction of archaeological sites, attended. Conference participants divided into three working groups: Identifying the Problem, Combatting the Problem, and Preventing the Problem. The Preventing the Problem group, chaired by Shereen Lerner, “focused on the idea that educating the public was the only viable solution to the problem of site vandalism” (Friedman 2000:14). There were three major outcomes: 1) a list of action items to address the problem of vandalism, 2) a resolution to unite in ensuring that the SAA implemented the action items, and 3) a realization/discovery by individuals who had been laboring in isolation that they were not alone. Phyllis Messenger, one of the non-agency based “observers,” remembers that it “felt like there was electricity in the room; we’d found our group, our tribe, when we thought we were individuals working alone” (Phyllis Messenger, personal communication 2015).

The outcome of the meeting was a report published by the SAA, Save the Past for the Future: Actions for the ‘90s. The report summarized the meeting’s results, defined action items, and included excerpts from selected papers from both the Atlanta and Taos sessions (Judge and Bruen 1990:9).

Those who were part of Save the Past for the Future went back to their respective agencies and turned plans into results. They created education programs that became national initiatives, developed mechanisms to sponsor programs within agencies, provided support, and funded educational efforts through contracts and agreements. They also took the results back to the SAA.

Society for American Archaeology Committee on Public Education

Following the Fort Burgwin conference, an ad hoc committee of individuals from the Preventing the Problem working group continued discussions regarding a nationwide public education initiative (Messenger 1999:236). The first formal, post-Taos meeting was held at the University of Minneapolis in October 1989 with the goal of reducing the 100-plus action items into a workable action plan (Friedman 2000:14). The resulting proposal was, according to Messenger, “drafted in my office by several archaeologists and educators attending a conference on ‘Presenting the Past’ at the University of Minnesota in October 1989.” The proposal to create a permanent committee on public education was submitted to the SAA Executive Board at its next meeting (Messenger, personal communication 2015).

Upon reviewing this proposal, the Executive Board recommended establishing a Task Force on Public Education within the SAA to study the issue and develop an action plan. On March 19, 1990, the Task Force completed the Task Force on Public Education Action Plan to address a “broad range of public education goals related to archaeology, including, but not limited to, preservation of heritage resources” (Friedman and Messenger 1990:2). The document identified a mission, “to promote public education about the past and to engage the public in preservation and protection of heritage resources,” and goals:

  • “Establish a Public Education Committee to lead the SAA in an aggressive public education program…;
  • Promoting the understanding of and respect for other cultures, values, and diversity in part through the teaching of archaeology and teaching respect for and preservation of heritage resources…; and
  • Promoting preservation as a cultural norm which will encourage the public to leave heritage resources undisturbed or be willing to support careful scientific research…”

Action items were divided between short-term and long-term goals. The short-term goals focused on establishing the Public Education Committee (PEC) within the SAA. The PEC was to work with other public-oriented initiatives and offer programs for the public in conjunction with each annual meeting; to coordinate with other heritage resource organizations to minimize a duplication of efforts, to share resources, and to participate in regional and national teachers’ conferences; and to encourage federal agencies to comply with public education components of the Archaeological Resources Protection Act amendments. The SAA was also advised to develop staff positions within its office and assist the PEC in reaching its goals. Board members discussed other short-term goals, such as selecting a celebrity spokesperson, and considered giving awards to Steven Spielberg and actors such as Harrison Ford, Charles Bronson, Clint Eastwood, and Louis Gossett, Jr. (SAA 1990). These discussions led to some award presentations and the presence of author Clive Cussler at the public session in Chicago, Illinois, in 1999 (Figure 2).

Figure 2. Lawrence R. Ellick helps Clive Cussler at the book-signing event held in conjunction with the Public Session at the SAA meeting in Chicago, Illinois, in 1999 (photograph by Carol J. Ellick).

The long-term goals were broader in reach and included initiating discussions with youth organizations and Native American tribal leaders, and challenging anthropology departments to change their curriculum and promote policies supporting public education and public archaeology. The committee was also to develop materials on heritage resource protection and to evaluate existing pre-collegiate educational materials. Additional goals included developing a National Archaeology Week and setting up regional “archaeology in a public education resource center” at a college, university, or NPS regional center.

In Las Vegas, Nevada, on April 18, 1990, the SAA Executive Board discussed the Task Force’s report in detail. SAA President Jeremy Sabloff stated that the Task Force was interim, but that it “must be made permanent… as a regular Advisory Committee” (SAA 1990). The Board “unanimously” passed the motion to “establish an Advisory Committee on Public Education.” Friedman was appointed as the first chair (SAA 1990; Ed Friedman, personal communication 2016).

The initial PEC drew members from the education group at Fort Burgwin as well as individuals who were active in public outreach and education. The action plan goals were divided between working groups and subcommittees (Table 2).

Table 2. Original Society for American Archaeology Public Education Committee Work Groups and Subcommittees and Tasks.

Work Group/SubcommitteeTasks/Function
Inter-Society Work Group Ed Friedman, ChairOpen dialogue on public education agendas and projects among professional anthropological and archaeological organizations to coordinate joint efforts or division of labor
Network Subcommittee Phyllis Messenger, ChairCreate a national network of regional or state contacts to work directly with educators; establish a team who can create a positive climate for press coverage and community relations; and build a speakers’ bureau of professionals to communicate with the public.
Special Interest Group Subcommittee Larry Desmond, ChairWork with select organizations such as American Association of Retired Persons, Sierra Club, and National Rifle Association; write articles for their journals, magazines, and newsletters; and provide leadership with pertinent information.
Formal Education Subcommittee Karolyn Smardz and Paul Hogge, ChairsBegin amassing a list of individuals who teach archaeology in the classroom, send questionnaires regarding materials used and grade levels; compile and evaluate materials; and, if necessary, develop new teacher-tested materials.
Public Session Subcommittee George Smith, ChairOffer free or low-cost evening and weekend sessions to encourage timely dissemination of archaeological information to the public and encourage interaction between archaeologists and the public.
Market Place Subcommittee K. C. SmithDevelop an exhibit/marketplace within the exhibitors’ area at the annual SAA meeting that would include demonstrations, hands-on activities, and displays of educational materials, slide shows, film viewing, and videos that interpret archaeology or describe preservation efforts.
Workshops and Outreach Nancy HawkinsOn behalf of the committee, coordinate efforts to offer an annual teacher workshop and other workshops such as writing for the public.

The Committee’s first product was the quarterly Archaeology and Public Education newsletter, published on September 14, 1990, with an initial distribution of approximately 500 copies. The newsletter provided information on archaeological education to archaeologists and educators, advertised the committee’s activities, informed the profession about pertinent legislation, and contained the newsletter mailing list. To reach beyond an archaeological audience, every issue included “The Classroom” section for teachers. The very first lesson was “Story in a Bag: An Archaeology Lesson for Grades 3–6” (Ellick 1990:7). The newsletter also served as an informal recruitment tool for potential committee members. The PEC’s work was fluid and flexible, developing as circumstances dictated and as the committee established itself.

The third issue of Archaeology and Public Education (March 1991) had a circulation of 793 and by May, 1993, it reached 4000 people. In 1995, the newsletter was finally sent to all SAA members. It continued as the PEC’s outreach tool through the spring issue of 2004. All of the issues are available on the SAA website.  

By June 1991, the anticipated cost of producing and mailing the newsletter was $4,200 (Friedman 1991). These and other operating costs of the PEC were unlike those of any other committee, but then again, so was the support for what it was accomplishing. According to Friedman, people received the newsletter and asked to join. “A lot of my time was donated by Reclamation and devoted to producing the newsletter so I was always looking for ways to add to the newsletter and the committee.” Messenger was “instrumental in editing the newsletter and the Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, and Fish and Wildlife Service did the majority of the copying” (Friedman, personal communication 2015). Several federal agencies provided funding for PEC products and projects through cooperative agreements and memoranda of agreement.

The committee’s size grew, and by 1997, membership numbered over 60 individuals (Society for American Archaeology 1997:119–120). Nearly everyone who was doing or interested in archaeological education was associated with the committee. According to vice chair Messenger, “We were committed to this. This became a focus that helped legitimize what we were doing” (Phyllis Messenger, personal communication 2015). Unlike typical committees designed to serve the Board, this committee was dedicated to the profession and to the preservation of archaeological sites.

The 1991 SAA meetings in New Orleans, Louisiana, hosted the first official PEC meeting. The group’s energy was indescribable. Subcommittees formed and re-formed based on short- and long-term goals. The PEC met at the conferences and subcommittees also met and worked independently. Products and projects were completed and new ideas for meeting goals were generated.

Figure 3. Carol Ellick (right) stands by Society for American Archaeology Public Education Committee Chair Ed Friedman (center) and Vice Chair Phyllis Messenger (left) at the second Public Education Committee meeting, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1992.

In addition to independent meetings and SAA Annual Meetings (Figure 3), PEC events took place throughout the year, led by committee members in their own states. Some of these activities predated the PEC, and others were a direct outgrowth of subcommittees. To increase state-based efforts and assist people looking for information on archaeology, the PEC started the Network of State Coordinators. Table 3 summarizes many of the PEC activities achieved between 1990 and 2007. Other accomplishments included creating or assisting with brochures: The Path to Becoming an Archaeologist, Reaching Kids through Archaeology, Archaeology: Building Our Future by Protecting the Past, The Fourth “R”—Archaeology, and Americans Dig Archaeology (Figure 4). PEC members also were involved with the “Renewing the Undergraduate Curriculum at the Introductory Level” NSF grant managed by K. Anne Pyburn and George S. Smith, which resulted in the 16 revised undergraduate course modules for Making Archaeology Teaching Relevant in the XXI Century (MATRIXX). Recent SAA sessions have resulted in two upcoming publications on the pedagogy of heritage edited by Phyllis Messenger and Susan Bender, both to be published by University Press of Florida.

Figure 4. Society for American Archaeology Public Education Committee brochures: The Path to Becoming an Archaeologist; Reaching Kids through Archaeology; Archaeology: Building Our Future by Protecting the Past; The Fourth “R”—Archaeology; and Americans Dig Archaeology.

Table 3. The History of the Society for American Archaeology Public Education Committee: Project, Products, and Offshoots from 1990–2007.

YearProjects, Products, and Offshoots
1990Society for American Archaeology (SAA) Executive Board establishes the Public Education Committee (PEC).
First Archaeology and Public Education newsletter published and sent to nearly 500 agencies and individuals.
SAA establishes an avocational membership dues category to encourage non-professional archaeologists to join.
1991The Education Resource Forum made its debut at the SAA meeting in New Orleans, Louisiana, with more than 100 archaeology education materials on display.
First public session held in conjunction with the SAA Conference with a student essay contest.
PEC sponsored workshops: Project Archaeology Saving Traditions (PAST) workshop and Writing for the Public the SAA meetings in New Orleans, Louisiana.
1992Archaeology and Public Education readership is up to 2,700.
First SAA PEC symposium “Essential Skills of Archaeology” offered with presentations by educators and archaeologists.
Formal Education Subcommittee meeting held at Ed and Eileen Friedman’s home in Golden, Colorado.
PEC Strategic Plan Development Retreat, Greely, Colorado.
Strategic Plan finalized.
Letter to anthropology department chairs enlisting their support in an effort to promote public education about the past and preservation of heritage resources and asking for assistance and support.
1993New Resource Forum introduced at the SAA meeting.
Archaeology and Public Education readership hits 4,000 and newsletter is reformatted.
1994“Save the Past for the Future II,” Breckenridge, Colorado set the stage for initiatives including the SAA Task Force on Curriculum—the MATRIX project, the hiring of an SAA Manager of Public Education, development of Native American Educator workshops, creation of new publications, and establishment of a Curriculum Committee
1995The Spring/Summer issue of the Archaeology and Public Education newsletter began being sent to all SAA members.
“The Guidelines for the Evaluation of Archaeology Education Materials” published by the Formal Education Subcommittee of the SAA PEC produced(Formal Education Subcommittee 1995a).
“Teaching Archaeology: A Sampler for Grades 3 to 12” (Formal Education Subcommittee 1995b).
“Save the Past for the Future” special report published by SAA.
1996First Archaeology Day/Week/Month Poster Competition.
The idea for the Archaeology Education Handbook: Sharing the Past with Kids book originated.
1997Boy Scout Merit Badge released
“Archaeology for Native American Educators: Building Curriculum, Building Bridges” Workshop held at the Haskell Indian Nations University
1998“Teaching with Archaeology: Building Curriculum, Building Bridges, Cherokee” Workshop held in North Carolina.
“Enhancing Undergraduate and Graduate Education and Training in Public Archaeology and Cultural Resource Management” Workshop, Wakulla Springs Workshop resulting in the book Teaching in the 21st Century (Bender and Smith 2000).
SAA Teaching Archaeology in the 21st Century task force established.
Final print version of the Archaeology and Public Education newsletter published
1999Clive Cussler appeared as the guest speaker in the final Public Session in Chicago, Illinois
2000The results of the Harris Poll “Exploring Public Perceptions and Attitudes about Archaeology” published.
The Archaeology Education Handbook: Sharing the Past with Kids, with contributions by a number of PEC members, edited by Karolyn Smardz and Shelley J. Smith, and published by AltaMira Press
2001SAA Manager of Education and Outreach position filled by Maureen Malloy.
PEC Working session in New Orleans. Design plans for a website laid out.
The first Teaching with Archaeology Teaching Module No. 1 “History Beneath the Sea: Nautical Archaeology in the Classroom” is published.
2003Archaeologists and Local Communities: Partners in Exploring the Past, edited by Linda Derry and Maureen Malloy
2004Final digital issue of the Archaeology and Public Education newsletter produced. All issues archived on the SAA For the Public webpages, http://www.saa.org/ForthePublic/NewsEvents/APEArchives/tabid/77/Default.aspx.
Florida Public Archaeology Network is established and all seven centers opened their doors by the fall of 2007
2005ArchaeologyLand! made its debut at the SAA Meeting in Salt Lake City, Utah.
Teaching Archaeology: A Sampler for Grades 3 to 12 available on CD ROM.
Preserving the World’s Heritage Resources: Public Policy and Heritage Resource Management Workshop, Cumberland Island, Georgia, resulting in the book Cultural Heritage Management: A Global Perspective (Messenger and Smith 2010).
2006Archaeology for the Public website completed, http://www.saa.org/publicftp/PUBLIC/home/home.html
2007Heritage Values: The Past in Contemporary Society Workshop, Cumberland Island, Georgia, resulting in the book Heritage Values in Contemporary Society (Smith et al. 2010)

There is no doubt that the PEC affected the profession. Tangible evidence includes Principles 4 and 6 of Principles of Archaeological Ethics (Lynott 1997) and declarations regarding the importance of and dedication to archaeological education in Board nominee statements. Additionally, students are graduating from academic institutions thinking that 1) public outreach is an ethical component of doing archaeology, and 2) archaeological education and public outreach is a career path within archaeology (cf. King, 2016). Because of the PEC, it is now taken for granted that this is part of what makes us professional archaeologists.Yet almost since the beginning, the SAA Board voiced both amazement over the achievements and concerns over the size and reach of the PEC.

The Taming of the Committee

In 2005, after years of worrying that the PEC didn’t follow the standard committee model or rules, the Executive Director and the Board determined to bring the PEC under the same constraints as other SAA committees. Members would serve three-year terms; PEC meetings would be held alongside other committee meetings; and the PEC’s size would be limited to approximately 15 members. Most importantly, the PEC would change from an action-oriented committee to one serving the Board. The Public Archaeology Interest Group (PAIG) was offered as an alternative networking opportunity for those interested or involved in public outreach and education.

As a result, the PEC suffered a loss of momentum, but some of the energy has been renewed over the past five years. The committee continues the work originally launched between 1990 and 2005 and has a number of new projects including re-establishing the PEC State Network, increasing the communication network through Facebook, establishing a major task force project to evaluate the website pages, going through the Boy Scout issues on gender inclusivity and the merit badge, continuing work on career issues of The Archaeological Record, re-launching the PEC newsletter, increasing the National Council for the Social Studies involvement, and promoting Archaeology Day/Week/Month (Robert Connolly, personal communication 2015).

Beyond the Society for American Archaeology

The SAA wasn’t the only major U.S. professional organization developing committees and programs to protect archaeological sites through education. The Society for Historical Archaeology (SHA), the Archaeological Institute of America (AIA), and the American Anthropological Association (AAA) have all increased their public education efforts. According to research conducted by Carol McDavid, the SHA formed an education committee in the early 1980s. The earliest reference to the Public Information and Action Committee is in a 1983 SHA newsletter. By the early 1990s, the committee was known as the Public Education Committee and within a few years had changed its name to the Public Education and Interpretation Committee (PEIC) (McDavid, personal communication 2016). During this time, some people served on education committees for multiple professional organizations.

In 2011, the AIA undertook an international outreach effort: initiating National Archaeology Day. This event, supported by 14 organizations, offered 115 programs in 37 states and four Canadian Provinces and an event in the United Kingdom. The event was renamed International Archaeology Day in 2013 and expanded further to include 188 collaborators and approximately 375 events (Archaeological Institute of America 2016; see Thomas and Langlitz 2016).

While the AAA Public Education Committee itself has been inactive since 2008, the organization as a whole has instituted a Public Education Initiative.  The focus of the initiative is “tackling timely topics like Race and Migration.”  Within this focus, the AAA has two projects: the RACE Project, which “explains the differences among people and reveals the reality—and unreality—of race” and the new World on the Move: 100,000 Years of Human Migration initiative, which helps “people rethink their ideas about moving, displacement, and belonging—and to use what they learn to better understand their own migration histories and those of others” (AAA 2016).

Solidification of a Profession

The reduction of the PEC’s size and level of effort not only impacted the SAA’s effectiveness, but also affected every individual who was removed from the committee. There was safety in numbers and support for individual efforts; together it felt like anything could be accomplished. When removed from the committee, people found themselves working alone again. It took time to recover from the shock, but in 2014 several ideas began an upwelling of activity that will become the basis for a renewed movement in archaeological education.

2014 to the Future

It has been more than 25 years since Actions for the ’90s was created. Those who formed the PAWG, participated in the working conference at Fort Burgwin, founded and participated in the PEC, and made public outreach and archaeological education their careers have reached or are reaching the age of retirement. The generation after that initial group has been followed in turn by a third wave of archaeologists entering the profession. It has been too long since the situation was examined and an updated action plan executed. Unfortunately, we no longer have large forums for bringing ideas to life and working together on a focused mission as at Fort Burgwin or Breckenridge. Financial support to battle the destruction of archaeological sites has all but dried up. Individuals have gone back to working in isolation. But the nest of fire has been retained, and the movement is starting again.

The literature indicates that 2014 was the year that archaeological educators began talking, writing, and publishing about the need for reorganizing efforts. Sarah E. Miller, chair of the SHA PEIC and Northeast Region Director of the Florida Public Archaeology Network, wrote an article titled “Archaeology Education at the Crossroads,” in which she said, “We seem to be at an impasse for what we can achieve as separate societies and need to work together or form another group” (Miller 2014, emphasis in original). At the SAA annual meetings, the number of symposia examining the role of archaeological or heritage education is increasing – though the PEC has been notably absent in sponsoring sessions. The PEC’s sponsorship peaked in 2007, when it supported 6 of the 10 education sessions offered. In 2014, the committee sponsored 3 of 8 sessions, and in 2015, only 2 of 16. At the 2016 meeting, 11 sessions focused on public outreach and education, but none were sponsored by the PEC.  According to current SAA rules, no committee may sponsor more than three sessions at a conference because of scheduling conflicts. Nevertheless, the PEC did not take advantage of its full allotment in 2015 and 2016. The PAIG and other committees focused on community, teaching, and ethics are taking on the role of sponsoring education and outreach-based sessions.

Another interesting trend is the linguistic change within the titles of the sessions. More recent outreach and archaeological education sessions lack the words “archaeology education,” “archaeological education,” and “outreach” and instead use the words “pedagogy,” “collaboration,” “community archaeology,” and “stewardship.” In addition, new terms for the outreach process have been created, such as “co-creation” and “community-based participatory research,” suggesting not only a shift in thinking but also in how archaeological research is accomplished (see King 2016 and Kowalczyk 2016 for more on this topic). Appendix 1 contains a list of the education and outreach sessions offered at the SAA annual meetings between 2005 and 2016.

In Honolulu, Hawaii, at the 78th Annual Meeting, three sessions examined issues and dilemmas in teaching archaeology, in development and assessment, and on finding solutions for protecting heritage resources. At the SAA electronic symposium of the 79th Annual Meeting in Austin, Texas, “Getting Back to Saving the Past for the Future: Heritage Education at a Professional Crossroads,” Margaret A. Heath presented a paper titled “Past, Present, and Future Directions of Heritage Education,” in which she reflected on the origins of archaeological education and the future of heritage education. She reinforced the idea that “collaborative efforts can lead to great things” (Heath 2014:15). The trend continued at the 80th Annual Meeting in Orlando, Florida where sessions focused on assessment, approaches, and engagement.

The outcomes of this building energy are still in development, but, as before, education as the way to stem looting and vandalism was the spark that got the fire going. As before, too, this momentum started with individuals coming together.

New Initiatives

Some of the renewed energy comes from organizations like the Archaeological Institute of America, which has been dedicated to public outreach and involvement for decades. Some comes from changes in organization leadership, and the rest comes from individuals working in new collaborations traced back to the founding of the PEC or PEIC. These current efforts are summarized below.

Archaeological Institute of America (AIA)

The banner on the AIA website says “Excavate, Educate, Advocate.” Its goals are to educate “people of all ages about the significance of archaeological discovery and advocate the preservation of the world’s archaeological heritage” (AIA 2016). In 2014, the Director of Programs, Ben Thomas, and the Senior Programs Coordinator, Meredith Anderson Langlitz, began organizing the “Building a Strong Future for Archaeological Education” working conference.

The two-day workshop, held in conjunction with the annual AIA meeting in New Orleans, Louisiana, on January 9–10, 2015, included a wide range of attendees involved in archaeology, education, and archaeological education. The organizers’ intent was to provide a location to gather, discuss, plot, and plan in the style of the old PEC meetings. Discussions focused on professionalizing archaeological education by increasing publications; developing guidelines similar to those in environmental education; and creating a professional organization for individuals within archaeological, anthropological, and heritage education. Individuals came away with a feeling of purpose and a list of goals for the year.

A second workshop was held in conjunction with the 2016 AIA meeting in San Francisco. At this meeting, individuals reported back on progress, which included a definition of heritage ethics, publications (including this thematic issue of the AAP), and the founding of a new heritage education organization (see The Heritage Education Network below).

Making Archaeology Public Project

In honor of the fiftieth anniversary of the 1966 National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), Lynne Sebastian, working with the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, came up with the idea to create a product highlighting what we know about archaeology thanks to the NHPA. The resulting 10–15 minute state-based videos highlight a project or specific piece of knowledge that might have remained unknown had NHPA not been enacted. The videos, hosted on the Preservation 50 website, are a tangible public benefit of work that has been accomplished in “the public’s interest.”

The Institute for Heritage Education

The Institute for Heritage Education, incorporated in Montana in September 2014, is dedicated to providing and supporting education that helps people understand and appreciate their own cultural heritage and that of others by supporting the existing Project Archaeology program. It operates as a nonprofit partner, providing materials and professional development for heritage education professionals and providing consultation and strategic support for other heritage education projects and programs.

Archaeology Education Clearinghouse

In an effort to create an entity to sponsor exhibits at the annual National Council of Social Studies (NCSS), the SHA, SAA, and AIA created a loosely defined partnership in 2007. The Clearinghouse’s goal is to host a booth at NCSS conferences that offers archaeological education materials for social studies teachers, district level coordinators, administrators, and researchers in instruction and design (Malloy and Jeppson 2009:30).

The Heritage Education Network

When the idea for the PEC was originally proposed, some archaeologists were heard to say, “Good idea. Go form your own organization.” At the time, however, the point was to make education a professional and ethical responsibility. When the PEC was reduced in size and term limits were instituted, it became clear that it was time to circle back to the idea of creating an independent archaeological education network.

The alliance, formally proposed at the 2015 AIA working conference, is currently “under construction.” When certified as a 501(c)(3) nonprofit, The Heritage Education Network (THEN) will serve those who use, manage, and create information about past or present people and cultures, including professionals within the fields of archaeology, anthropology, architecture, landscape architecture, and history. Its goals are to use and encourage education as a means to protect and preserve the past for the future; provide a forum and network for practitioners, professional educators, and the public to communicate about and collaborate on heritage education; develop standards, codes of ethics, best practices, and professional guidelines for heritage educators; mentor individuals entering and/or interested in the profession of heritage education; share and publicize best practices and resources for practitioners; and provide a venue for publication.

THEN will primarily exist online and will offer a comprehensive library of resources that can be referenced by public outreach and education professionals. The organization will build partnerships with professional archaeological and anthropological associations, as well as museum and interpretation associations, and will rotate meetings between venues in order to keep people connected on a personal as well as a virtual basis. THEN has the potential to bring the profession together, across archaeological organizations, and to provide guidance for individuals and the archaeological profession (https://theheritageeducationnetwork.org)  

Take it from Here!

The future is unclear. What is clear is that, while archaeological education has had an impact, there is still much to be done. Archaeological educators have worked (and volunteered) on the local, state, regional, national, and even the international level. They have created reams of materials, taught countless workshops, summarized programs, conducted program assessments, presented findings at conferences, worked on committees, and published articles. But, despite these efforts, there has been less success in transferring the lessons learned and the experience gained to those newly entering the profession. Perhaps the focus on creating materials, teaching workshops, and presenting at conferences should have been broadened to include publishing more; until recently, venues such as peer-reviewed journals have not focused on archaeological education topics.

What have we done? How do we measure the impact of our efforts beyond the project or classroom, and, equally importantly, how do we improve those efforts in the future? Although legislation has become tighter and prosecutions have occurred, looting continues. Educating the public is an ongoing process and so must be the growth of the educational movement. It must move forward much in the way that environmental education has (Reetz and Quackenbush 2016; Sgouros and Stirn 2016); archaeological (or heritage) education must define itself for those who do it, for those who want to enter the profession, and for those who want to question why it exists. It will take organizations like THEN to provide the “place” for members to develop a powerbase beyond what an individual committee at one organization can do. As exemplified by authors within this issue, the entire landscape of archaeological education has changed into a broader one of heritage education that includes other professions and theories from other fields. We can no longer do what we do merely from the standpoint of archaeology; we need a more systematic synthesis of information and assessment of best practices (see also King 2016).

Throughout the history of archaeological education, our work has targeted looting and vandalism. In recent years, efforts have expanded to encompass a variety of themes beyond preservation and protection. Today archaeology is used as a means to convey information on cultural diversity; cultural sensitivity; science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and careers; landscape perspectives in cultural resource management; and climate change. These expanded themes offer opportunities for reaching broader audiences through civic engagement and community-based participatory research, increasing relevance and creating new enthusiasm that can support the revitalization of educational efforts and programs.

It is time for us to look back to Save the Past for the Future: Actions for the ’90s (Judge and Bruen, 1990) and Save the Past for the Future II: Report of the Working Conference (SAA 1995) to create a new set of action items that takes us to 2026 and beyond.

Data Availability Statement

No physical or digital data were used in the production of this manuscript, with the exception of electronic documents that appear as online publications.  Citations are provided in the article.

Appendix 1. Public Archaeology, Education and Outreach Symposia, Sessions, and Workshops at the Society for American Archaeology Annual Meetings between 2005 and 2016.

YearSession TypeSponsorshipTitle
2016SymposiumPAIG1Strategic Approaches to Digital Public Archaeology
 SymposiumPAIGAssessing Outcomes in Public Archaeology: Imperatives, Perils, and Frameworks
 Symposium Public Engagement and Education: Developing Heritage Stewardship
 Symposium My Best (and Worst) Day at FPAN: Celebrating 10 Years of Florida Public Archaeology Network Program Highlights and Continuing Challenges
 Symposium Public Agencies and Universities: Partnerships for the Past
 PosterCurriculum Committee; Teaching Archaeology Interest GroupTeaching Archaeology: Highlights from the Committee on Curriculum and the Teaching Archaeology Interest Group
 PosterUSDA Forest ServiceCelebrating the Contributions of a Community of Preservation: Forest Service Partners and Volunteers
 Poster Teaching, Heritage, Outreach
 Forum The Future of American Archaeology: Engage the Voting Public or Kiss Your Research Goodbye!
 General Public Archaeology
 General Collaborative and Community Archaeologies
2015SymposiumPAIGPublic Perceptions of Archaeology
 SymposiumPAIGCreative Public-Centered Approaches to Compliance Archaeology
 SymposiumIndigenous People’s Interest Group; Committee on Native American RelationsArchaeologies by Community Mandate: Practicing Collaborative and Community-Engaged Research
 Symposium Preservation Protection, and Outreach Programs in National Park Service Archaeology
 Symposium Project Archaeology Makes a Difference: The Next 25 Years
 Symposium Not Just Blogging Archaeology-Media and Social Media’s Influence on Archaeology
 Symposium Current Practice in Digital Public & Community Archaeology
 Symposium Engaging with the Public and the Past: The Archaeological Legacy of Brian Fagan
 General Public Outreach and Education
 ForumPEC2The Engaged Classroom, Continued: Selecting Materials for Archaeology Courses
 ForumPEC; Ethics CommitteeCons or Pros? Should Archaeologists collaborate with Responsible Collectors
 DebatePAIGArtifact Identification as Outreach
 PosterCommittee on CurriculumTeaching Archaeology in the Twenty-First Century: Activities for the College Classroom
 Poster Crowdsourcing, Co-Creation, and Collaboration through Virtual Curation
 General Education and Pedagogy in the Classroom and Field
2014SymposiumPECCo-Creation, The Public and the Archaeological Record
 SymposiumCommittee for Museums, Collections, and CurationStewardship, Public Education, and Preservation: Promoting the Value of Archaeological Collections and Research
 Symposium Collaborative and Community Archaeology
 Electronic SymposiumPECGetting Back to Saving the Past for The Future: Heritage Education at a Professional Crossroads
 ForumPECThe Engaged Classroom: Developing Activities for Archaeology Courses
 Poster Archaeological Practice, Collaboration, Interpretation, and Outreach
 General Teaching Archaeology
2013SymposiumHeritage Values Interest GroupLessons from the Trenches II: New Pedagogies of Archaeology and Heritage
 Symposium Accessible Archaeology
 Symposium Finding Solutions for Protecting and Sharing Archaeological Heritage Resources
 PosterPEC; PAIGThe Impact of Public Archaeology Programs: Evaluating Participant Responses and Feedback
 Poster Archaeology and the Public
 General Archaeology in Education: Students “Dig” Archaeology
 General Public Archaeology
2012SymposiumPAIGPublic Archaeology in the 21st Century
 Electronic SymposiumHeritage Values Interest Group; Ethics CommitteeLessons from the Trenches: The Pedagogy of Archaeology and Heritage
 Poster Teaching Archaeology & Public Outreach
 General Contributions in Public Education and Outreach
2011Symposium Research in Archaeological Literacy: Consensus Building, Conceptual Understanding, Cultural Landscapes, and Social Networking
 Symposium Blogging Archaeology
 ForumPECForming Partnerships and Preparing New Generations of Archaeologists
 Poster Archaeological Education and Public Outreach in the Americas
 General Archaeological Education and Public Outreach in the Americas
2010SymposiumPEC; Consulting ArchaeologyBeyond the Brochure 2.0: Public Outreach in Cultural Resource Management
 Symposium Neighborhood Archaeology: Volunteers, Communities, and Local Politics
 Symposium Celebrating a Decade of Discovery, Archaeology, Heritage Education, and Outreach on the Bureau of Land Management’s National Landscape Conservation System
 ForumGovernment Affairs; PEC; PAIGRaising the Profile III: Protection for Archaeological Resources at the Local Level
 ForumPECSaving the Planet…And Archaeology!
 PosterCouncil of Affiliated SocietiesAvocational Archaeology Making a Difference: Who’s Done it and Who’s Doing It-Part 1
 PosterCouncil of Affiliated SocietiesAvocational Archaeology Making a Difference: Who’s Done it and Who’s Doing it-Part 2
2009Symposium Time Team America: An Introduction to Archaeology Behind the Program
 Symposium The Real World: Teaching Archaeology in Non-Traditional Ways and Places
 PosterPECSharing Archaeology with the Public: Examples from Homol’ovi Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program
 ForumPECPublic Education in Archaeology: How are We Doing?
 ForumPEC; PAIGWho is Archaeology’s Active Audience? Insights and Applications from the National Survey on Recreation and the Environment
 Workshop Designing and Delivering Archaeology Education for Multicultural Students
 General Curriculum Issues in Archaeological Education
 General Outreach and Archaeological Education
2008Poster Teaching and Public Outreach
 General Education and Public Outreach
2007SymposiumPECDiversifying Archaeology’s Impact through New Forms of Public Engagement: Current Happenings in Public
 SymposiumPECTaking the Camino Real to School
 SymposiumPECPublic Archaeology and Education in Northeast Research and Compliance Projects
 Symposium Transportation Archaeology: Juggling Cultural Resources, Preservation, and Public Benefit
 WorkshopPECEducation Programs Evaluation: Prospects and Planning
 Poster Public Education and Community Archaeology
2006Poster SymposiumPECExploring Some Different Faces of Public Education in Archaeology Today
 General Public Archaeology, Cultural Resource Management, and Education
2005SymposiumPECLearning in Place: Teaching in Replicated Structures
 SymposiumPECArchaeology and Public Education: Fifteen Years of Research and Results
 Poster Symposium The Archaeology Teaching Trunk: A Valuable Tool for Public Education
 WorkshopPECPublic Outreach to Promote Stewardship—Lessons From the “Interpretive” Profession
 PublicPECArchaeologyLand: Hands-On Activity  for Public Education and Outreach

Notes: 1. Public Archaeology Interest Group; 2. Public Education Committee

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[1] Archaeological and Educational Consultants, Tucson, AZ, U.S.A.; cjellick@theaceconsultants.com